Question: The title the NIV gives Genesis 10 is “The Table of Nations.” Are the descendants of Noah’s sons Shem, Ham and Japheth the founders of nations? Names for some of the descendants are Egypt, Canaan, Aram, Havilah and Sheba. Many people have heard of these place names, i.e. the queen of Sheba. So did the sons of Noah bring about these nations?
Answer: These sons arrived too late on the scene to be the originators of some of the names they represent. The first dynasty of Egypt goes back before 3000 BC.
In the ancient near and middle east new settlers in an area may have taken on the name of that area to show a willingness to integrate and work towards a common objective. There are some examples of this in Genesis:
Furthermore we see in Genesis 10 that Sheba was the name of two sons, one who was a descendant of Shem (Gen 10:28), and one who was a descendent of Ham (Gen 10:7).
We see a similar scenario with Havilah in Genesis 10 too. The river Pishon mentioned in Genesis 2:11 winds through the land of Havilah. Ham had a son called Havilah (Gen 10:7) and Shem also had a descendent called Havilah (Gen 10:29).
So we are left to conclude that the sons took their names from pre-existing place-names. Although some may have been leaders of clans and people groupings such as Kasluhites, because the text states “from whom the Philistines came” (Gen 10:14).
"The Table of Nations" isn’t a phrase we read in the Bible rather we read, “Generations of Shem, Ham, Japheth” (Gen 10:1). Genesis is structured by uses of the word toledoth, “generations.”